Abnormality Detection in Time Series Data

Anomaly detection is the procedure of determining information points or patterns in a dataset that deviate considerably from the standard. A time series is a collection of information points collected over a long time. Anomaly detection in time series information might be practical in numerous markets, consisting of production, health care, and financing. Anomaly detection in time series information might be achieved utilizing without supervision knowing techniques like clustering, PCA (Principal Element Analysis), and autoencoders.

What is an Abnormality Detection Algorithm?

Anomaly detection is the procedure of determining information points that differ the anticipated patterns in a dataset. Lots of applications, consisting of scams detection, invasion detection, and failure detection, typically utilize anomaly detection strategies. Discovering unusual or really irregular occasions that might indicate a possible danger, problem, or chance is the goal of abnormality detection.

The autoencoder algorithm is a without supervision deep knowing algorithm that can be utilized for anomaly detection in time series information. The autoencoder is a neural network that discovers to rebuild its input information By very first compressing input information into a lower-dimensional representation and after that extending it back to its initial measurements. An autoencoder might be trained on normal time series information to find out a compressed variation of the information for abnormality recognition. The anomaly rating might then be determined utilizing the restoration mistake in between the initial and rebuilt information. Abnormalities are information points with substantial restoration mistakes.

Time Series Data and Anamoly Detection

When it comes to time series information, anomaly detection algorithms are specifically essential considering that they assist us find odd patterns in the information that would not be apparent from simply taking a look at the raw information. Abnormalities in time series information may look like abrupt boosts or reduce in worths, odd patterns, or unforeseen seasonality. Time series information is a collection of observations throughout time.

  • Time series information might be utilized to teach anomaly detection algorithms, such as the autoencoder, how to represent normal patterns. These algorithms can then use this representation to discover abnormalities. The technique can find out a compressed variation of the information by training an autoencoder on routine time series information. The anomaly rating might then be determined utilizing the restoration mistake in between the initial and rebuilt information. Abnormalities are information points with substantial restoration mistakes.
  • Anomaly detection algorithms might be used to time series information to discover odd patterns that might indicate a danger, problem, or chance. For example, in the context of predictive upkeep, a time series abnormality might indicate a potential devices failure that might be repaired prior to it leads to a big quantity of downtime or security issues. Abnormalities in time series information might expose market motions or patterns in monetary projections that might be profited from.

The factor for getting accuracy, recall, and F1 rating of 1.0 is that the “ambient_temperature_system_failure. csv” dataset from the NAB repository includes abnormalities. If we had actually gotten accuracy, recall, and F1 rating of 0.0, then that suggests the “ambient_temperature_system_failure. csv” dataset from the NAB repository does not consist of abnormalities.

Importing Libraries and Dataset

Python libraries make it really simple for us to deal with the information and carry out normal and intricate jobs with a single line of code.

  • Pandas — This library assists to pack the information frame in a 2D range format and has several functions to carry out analysis jobs in one go.
  • Numpy — Numpy selections are really quick and can carry out big calculations in an extremely brief time.
  • Matplotlib/ Seaborn — This library is utilized to draw visualizations.
  • Sklearn– This module includes several libraries having pre-implemented functions to carry out jobs from information preprocessing to design advancement and assessment.
  • TensorFlow— This is an open-source library that is utilized for Artificial intelligence and Expert system and offers a series of functions to accomplish intricate performances with single lines of code.


import pandas as pd

import tensorflow as tf

from keras.layers import Input, Thick

from keras.models import Design

from sklearn.metrics import precision_recall_fscore_support

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

In this action, we import the libraries needed for the application of the abnormality detection algorithm utilizing an autoencoder. We import pandas for reading and controling the dataset, TensorFlow and Keras for developing the autoencoder design, and scikit-learn for computing the accuracy, recall, and F1 rating.


information = pd.read _ csv(

'/ NAB/master/data/ realKnownCause/ambient'

' _ temperature_system_failure. csv')

data_values = data.drop(' timestamp',

axis = 1). worths

data_values = data_values. astype(' float32')

data_converted = pd.DataFrame( data_values,

columns = data.columns[1:])

data_converted. insert( 0, ' timestamp',


We pack a dataset called “ambient_temperature_system_failure. csv” from the Numenta Abnormality Criteria (NAB) dataset, which includes time-series information of ambient temperature level readings from a system that experienced a failure.

The panda’s library is utilized to check out the CSV file from a remote area on GitHub and save it in a variable called “information”.

  • Now, the code drops the “timestamp” column from the “information” variable, considering that it is not required for information analysis functions. The staying columns are kept in a variable called “data_values”.
  • Then, the “data_values” are transformed to the “float32” information type to decrease memory use, and a brand-new pandas DataFrame called “data_converted” is produced with the transformed information. The columns of “data_converted” are identified with the initial column names from “information”, other than for the “timestamp” column that was formerly dropped.
  • Lastly, the code includes the “timestamp” column back to “data_converted” at the start utilizing the “insert()” approach. The resulting DataFrame “data_converted” has the exact same information as “information” however without the unneeded “timestamp” column, and the information remains in a format that can be utilized for analysis and visualization.


data_converted = data_converted. dropna()

We get rid of any missing out on or NaN worths from the dataset.

Abnormality Detection utilizing Autoencoder

It is a kind of neural network that discovers to compress and after that rebuild the initial information, enabling it to determine abnormalities in the information.


data_tensor = tf.convert _ to_tensor( data_converted. drop(

' timestamp', axis = 1). worths, dtype = tf.float32)

input_dim = data_converted. shape[1] - 1

encoding_dim = 10

input_layer = Input( shape =( input_dim,))

encoder = Thick( encoding_dim, activation =' relu')( input_layer)

decoder = Thick( input_dim, activation =' relu')( encoder)

autoencoder = Design( inputs = input_layer, outputs = decoder)

autoencoder. assemble( optimizer =' adam', loss =' mse')

autoencoder.fit( data_tensor, data_tensor, dates = 50,

batch_size = 32, shuffle = Real)

restorations = autoencoder.predict( data_tensor)

mse = tf.reduce _ mean( tf.square( data_tensor - restorations),

axis = 1)

anomaly_scores = pd.Series( mse.numpy(), name =' anomaly_scores')

anomaly_scores. index = data_converted. index

We specify the autoencoder design and fit it to the cleaned up information. The autoencoder is utilized to determine any discrepancies from the routine patterns in the information that are gained from the information. To decrease the suggest squared mistake in between the input and the output, the design is trained. The restoration mistake for each information point is figured out utilizing the experienced design and is used as an anomaly rating.


limit = anomaly_scores. quantile( 0.99)

anomalous = anomaly_scores > > limit

binary_labels = anomalous.astype( int)

accuracy, recall,

f1_score, _ = precision_recall_fscore_support(

binary_labels, anomalous, typical =' binary')

Here, we specify an abnormality detection limit and examine the design’s efficiency utilizing accuracy, recall, and F1 rating. Remember is the ratio of real positives to all genuine positives, whereas accuracy is the ratio of real positives to all forecasted positives. The harmonic mean of recall and precision is the F1 rating.


test = data_converted['value'] worths

forecasts = anomaly_scores. worths

print(" Accuracy: ", accuracy)

print(" Remember: ", recall)

print(" F1 Rating: ", f1_score)


 Accuracy: 1.0

Remember: 1.0 
. F1 Rating: 1.0

Picturing the Abnormality

Now let’s plot the abnormalities which are anticipated by the design and get a feel for whether the forecasts made are right or not by outlining the anomalous examples with red marks with the total information.


plt.figure( figsize =( 16, 8))

plt.plot( data_converted['timestamp'],


plt.plot( data_converted['timestamp'][anomalous],

data_converted['value'][anomalous], ' ro')

plt.title(' Abnormality Detection')

plt.xlabel(' Time')

plt.ylabel(' Worth')



Anomaly represented with red dots on time series data

Anomaly represented with red dots on time series information

Last Upgraded:
09 Jun, 2023

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